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Arizona College of Optometry

Glendale, AZ Campus

Course Descriptions

Arizona College of Optometry

Prerequisites are listed for those courses with such requirements. When no prerequisite is listed in a course description it is implied that there is no prerequisite.

Abbreviation/Number
Course Name

BASI 1501

Basic Science Integrated Sequence I

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BASI 1501 provides an overview of cell structure and function, including topics on molecular cell biology, metabolism, epithelium, general connective tissues, and blood. Module 1: Cell Biology outlines the basic histological structure and biochemical function of the cell. Module 2: Molecular Cell Biology and Metabolism focuses on transcription, translation, control of gene expression, and normal cell metabolism. Module 3: Epithelium, General Connective Tissues, and Blood defines the basic structure, function and biochemical characteristics of two basic histological tissues: epithelium and connective tissue. This module also includes an introduction to peripheral blood cells and hematopoiesis. The biochemical basis of hemostasis is described. Disorders of hemostasis and their consequences are discussed.

Credits: 4.5

BASI 1502

Basic Science Integrated Sequence II

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BASI 1502 provides an overview of cancer, genetics, lymphatic system and immunology. In Module 4: Cancer and Genetics, emphasis is placed on DNA mutations, polymorphisms, patterns of inheritance in human diseases, cytogenetics, and molecular basis of cancer. Module 5: Lymphatic System and Immunology, includes gross anatomy and histology of the lymphatic system and structure/function of the immune system. Basic precepts of the lymphatic system and immunology will be applied to inflammation, tissue repair and healing. Understanding of immunology will be applied to immune responses to infectious agents. Also included are: development and pathology of immunologically-mediated diseases, immune responses to transplants, cancer, HIV infection, and therapeutic use of drugs affecting the immune system.

Credits: 4.5

BASI 1503

Basic Science Integrated Sequence III

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BASI 1503 provides an overview of infectious diseases, integument and blood disorders. Module 6: Introduction to Infectious Diseases provides fundamental understanding of basic concepts in microbiology to accurately identify and manage infectious diseases. The information will aid in the management of the patient's health and general well-being. In Module 7: Integument and Blood Disorders, students combine their knowledge of epithelium, connective tissue, and peripheral blood to learn the basic structure and function of the integument. This module further describes common infections and pathologies of the integument as well as blood-borne infections and blood disorders.

Credits: 4.5

BASI 1504

Basic Science Integrated Sequence IV

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BASI 1504 provides an overview of the Musculoskeletal System (Module 8). Module 8 includes: the basic concepts of embryology, an introduction to gross anatomy, the structure and function of skeletal and smooth muscle and the development of bone and cartilage. Muscle membrane excitability and the molecular basis of muscle contraction are discussed. Diseases of bone and soft tissues are included. This module contains lectures and two laboratory sessions that describe upper extremity anatomy and function.

Credits: 3

BASI 1505

Basic Science Integrated Sequence V

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BASI 1505 provides an overview of the structure and function of the Nervous System and is composed of two modules titled Clinical Neuroscience I and II (Modules 9 and 10). Module 9: Clinical Neurosciences I begins by discussing the Nervous System in terms of its organization, support systems, and structure including: histology of nervous tissue, brain biochemistry, and mechanisms of neurotransmission including development of action potentials and synaptic transmission. This is followed by descriptions of the, structure and function of the vertebral column, spinal cord, and autonomic nervous system, structure and function of the somatosensory pathways, development of the nervous system, and common CNS anomalies and diseases of peripheral nerves. Module 10: Clinical Neurosciences II includes: the basic internal anatomy of the central nervous system as related to the structure and function of the auditory, vestibular, and visual systems, olfaction and taste, descending motor systems, and the cerebral cortex. Common pathologies and clinical concerns are discussed.

Credits: 5

BASI 1506

Basic Science Integrated Sequence VI

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BASI 1506 provides an overview of the structure and function of the Cardiovascular (Module 11) and Respiratory Systems (Module 12). Module 11: Cardiovascular System begins with a discussion of the anatomy, histology, and embryological development of the heart and circulatory system. Other topics included are cardiac muscle function, electrophysiology of cardiac muscle, cardiac cycle, and cardiac performance. Control of cardiovascular function integrates discussions of hemodynamics, regional circulation, and arterial blood pressure. Module 12: Respiratory System discusses the anatomy and histology of the respiratory system, mechanics of breathing, gas transport, and regulation of respiration. Relevant topics in microbiology, pathophysiology, and pathology are described in both modules.

Credits: 5

BASI 1507

Basic Science Integrated Systems VII

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BASI 1507 provides an overview of the Endocrine System (Module 13) and the Gastrointestinal (GI) System (Module 14) In Module 13 the disciplines of histology and physiology describe the basic structure and normal function of the Endocrine System. Topics discussed include the hypothalamic control of endocrine secretion and regulation of individual endocrine organs. Common disorders of the Endocrine System are discussed by the pathology faculty. Module 14 Gastrointestinal System includes topics such as: chewing, swallowing and digestion. The gross anatomical, histological, physiological, microbiological, and pathological aspects of the GI system are discussed.

Credits: 4

BASI 1508

Basic Science Integrated Systems VIII

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BASI 1508 provides an overview of the Urogenital System (Module 15). Topics included in the first part of the module are: the anatomy of the urogenital system, histology of the urinary system, renal tubular transport mechanisms, the production of urine, the control of extracellular fluid volume, and acid/base balance. The second part of the module provides an overview of the structure and function of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems. Diseases of the urogenital system are discussed.

Credits: 3

BASI 1509

Basic Science Integrated Systems IX

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BASI 1509 provides an overview of the Gross Anatomy of the Head and Neck (Module 16). This module provides instruction in the fundamental head and neck gross anatomy information required for clinical training. Three-dimensional relationships among anatomical structures are reinforced by in-depth dissections of the head and neck. Students are expected to use this anatomical information to elucidate and solve case-based problems commonly seen in clinical practice. Student dissection of the head and neck is performed under faculty supervision during three 3-hour laboratories per week.

Credits: 4.5

CORE 1560, 1570, 1580

Interdisciplinary Healthcare

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The Interdisciplinary Healthcare course involves the Colleges of Dental Medicine, Health Sciences, Optometry, Osteopathic Medicine, and Pharmacy. The course is designed to teach all clinically-based students about each other's clinical programs and how they interact together as part of an interdisciplinary healthcare team: cardiovascular sciences, clinical psychology, dental medicine, nurse anesthesia, occupational therapy, optometry, osteopathic medicine, pharmacy, physician assistant, physical therapy and podiatry students learn about the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to patient care. The class consists primarily of online presentations that are delivered by interdisciplinary team members from each of the clinical programs. Associated quizzes will also be completed online. Occasional lectures will also be given in the classroom in a seminar format or in conjunction with panel presentations.

Credits: Each 0.5

OPTO 1510, 1520, 1530

Clinical Services, Theory & Methods I, II, III

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This course sequence is an introduction to the theory and procedures that structure the examination of the eye. This includes instrumentation, examination methods, psychophysical techniques, appropriate patient instructions, protocols and recording of findings. Instruction is provided to foster progressive development of basic examination techniques including, but not limited to, medical and ocular history, visual acuity, color vision, cover test, depth perception, pupillary and visual pathways, external ocular examination, retinoscopy and refraction, and ophthalmoscopy.

Credits: 3 credits each course

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1520 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods II: OPTO 1510 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods I
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1530 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods III: OPTO 1520 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods II

OPTO 1511

Contemporary Issues in Health Care and Ethics

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This course introduces students to the current issues faced by providers of primary eye care as well as ethical precepts that serve as foundations to providing health care to the public. Included is the history of optometry and the dynamic role of optometry in present day health systems.

Credits: 0.5

OPTO 1522

Optometry Business Management I

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This course surveys the profession of optometry up to present day, provides details about planning for personal, professional and financial goals, managing debt, and building credit worthiness to prepare for professional life. Optometric career choices, modes and scope of optometric practice, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the various paths are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the steps that should be initiated to prepare for a professional career.

Credits: 2

OPTO 1540, 1550

Geometric and Physical Optics I, II

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The optics of reflection, refraction at single spherical surfaces, thick lenses, prisms, and thin lenses will be covered in this sequence. Characteristics of electromagnetic waves, diffraction, interference, fluorescence, and polarization will be explained. Students will gain an appreciation of optics of telescopes, microscopes, other instruments, and photonic methods of imaging in healthcare.

Credits: 4 credits each course

Prerequisites

Prerequisites for OPTO 1550 Geometric and Physical Optics II: OPTO 1540 Geometric and Physical Optics I

OPTO  1560

Ocular Anatomy

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The course presents a detailed discussion of ocular gross and microscopic anatomy as a basis for understanding systemic and ocular pathophysiology as well as some anomalies of monocular and binocular visual processes. A general review of histology is presented as background for an intensive consideration of the microscopic anatomy of the normal eye. The course is presented through a lecture and workshop format.

Credits: 2

OPTO 1580

Ocular Physiology

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The course allows the student to understand and appreciate the physiology and pathophysiology of the tissues and physiological units of the eye including the eyelids, ocular tear film, cornea, aqueous humor, iris, lens, vitreous, retina and the visual pathways. Students will gain an understanding of the relationship of ocular physiology to ocular pharmacology and ocular pathophysiology.

Credits: 2

Prerequisites

OPTO 1560 Ocular Anatomy

OPTO  1620

Visual Science: Monocular Sensory Processing

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The basic aspects of monocular vision, including light and dark adaptation, color vision, spatial and temporal resolution will be discussed. Gross electrical potentials and photometry will be explained. Students will learn how to measure visual performance and understand its application to clinical optometry.

Credits: 3

OPTO  1622

Visual Science: Ocular Motility

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This course focuses on characteristics, control, and deficits of the five somatic eye movement systems (convergence, saccadic version, pursuit, version, fixation maintenance, vestibular reflex) and the autonomic systems subserving accommodation, pupillary diameter and reflexes. The physiology of the extraocular muscles and their relationship to strabismus is included in the course.

Credits: 2

OPTO 1623

Optometry Business Management II

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The emphasis of this course is on enhancing a student’s interpersonal skills and professionalism as part of patient care. Using a lecture/workshop format, emphasis is placed on the ethical implications of professional practice. Doctor/patient communication methods, practice marketing, patient retention, office production and benchmarking are presented. Clinico-legal aspects from record keeping, patient confidentiality, documentation, coding and billing, record release, and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) issues are also covered.

Credits: 2

OPTO  1624

Visual Science: Binocular Vision

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Students will learn about binocular sensory mechanisms of vision. This course will focus on the geometry of space and stereovision, and the underlying neuroanatomy and physiology of binocular vision. This course will include a discussion of the horopter, retinal correspondence, stereopsis, fusion, fixation disparity, rivalry and aniseikonia.

Credits: 4

OPTO 1625

Visual Optics

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This course considers the eye as an optical system, including schematic eye models, refractive error, optical characteristics of the eye, stimulus to accommodation, retinal image size and quality, purkinje images, entoptic phenomena, presbyopia, aphakia, intraocular implants and effects of radiation.

Credits: 2

Prerequisites

OPTO 1550 Geometric and Physical Optics II

OPTO 1630, 1632

Ophthalmic Optics I, II

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This course sequence covers design and application of ophthalmic materials, the study of the physical and optical characteristics of ophthalmic single vision and multifocal lens designs; ophthalmic prisms; absorptive lenses, and the measurement and fitting of lenses and frames.

Credits: 4 credits each course

Prerequisites
  • OPTO 1630 Ophthalmic Optics I: No Prerequisite
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1632 Ophthalmic Optics II: OPTO 1630 Ophthalmic Optics I

OPTO 1640, 1642, 1644

Ocular Disease I, II, III

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This course sequence covers in depth signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, clinical course, differential diagnosis, treatment and management of ocular diseases including the anterior and posterior segment and ocular adnexa.

Credits: 3 credits each course

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1642 Ocular Disease II: OPTO 1640 Ocular Disease I
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1644 Ocular Disease III: OPTO 1642 Ocular Disease II

OPTO 1648, 1649, 1740

Contact Lens I, II, III

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This course sequence includes a discussion of the theory and practice of contact lens design and contact lens fitting methodologies. Areas of discussion include corneal topography, design of materials, fabrication and modification of contact lenses, fitting and evaluation methodologies and procedures. Additionally, this course sequence will explore more advanced topics such as high and irregular astigmatism, keratoconic patients, presbyopic patients, post-surgical and irregular cornea fitting considerations. The care of patients seeking prosthetic eyes is also covered.

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1648 Contact Lens I, 3 credits: no prerequisite
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1649 Contact Lens II, 3 credits: OPTO 1648 Contact Lens I
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1740 Contact Lens III, 2 credits: OPTO 1649 Contact Lens II

OPTO 1650, 1652, 1654

Clinical Services, Theory & Methods IV, V, VI

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This course sequence covers instrumentation, examination methods, psychophysical techniques, appropriate patient instructions, protocols and recording of findings. Instruction is provided to foster progressive development of basic examination techniques and assessment of binocular skills, ocular health and primary low vision, vision therapy and contact lens evaluation. Students must successfully complete a proficiency examination at the end of each course before progressing into the next course in the sequence.

Credits: 3 credits each course

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1650 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods IV: OPTO 1530 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods III
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1652 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods V: OPTO 1650 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods IV
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1654 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods VI: OPTO 1652 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods V

OPTO  1670

Research Design and Biostatistics

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Principles of research design and the application of biostatistical methods will be discussed. The course will include an overview of potential studies that the student may choose for their capstone project.

Credits: 3

OPTO  1672

Capstone Project: Literature Search and Study Design

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The student will decide on a project hypothesis, conduct a literature search and design the study. The project may be an extensive literature review, a series of clinical cases or an experiment of basic or clinical research design under the mentorship of a faculty member.

Credits: 1

OPTO  1675

Visual Neurophysiology

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This course presents a discussion of the neurophysiological aspects of vision. Basic neurophysiological principles will be reviewed as well as retinal anatomy as a basis for understanding ocular visual neuro-pathophysiology to allow for a better understanding of some anomalies of monocular and binocular visual processes.

Credits: 2

OPTO 1691

Ocular Pharmacology

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This course focuses on the pharmacology of diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Specific topics include pharmacokinetics of the eye, use of autonomic agents, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious agents, and agents used to treat glaucoma. In addition, ocular effects of systemic medications will be presented.

Credits: 2

Prerequisites

PHAR 1601, 1621 General Pharmacology I, II

OPTO 1700

Clinical Medicine/Physical Assessment Laboratory

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Students learn how to collect a comprehensive health history and conduct a physical examination. This course discusses the relationship of findings from the health history and physical examination to ocular health conditions and their medical management. Students learn how to interpret clinical chemistry tests results, recognize criteria for referral of patients to other providers, and learn how to perform continuous chest compressions.

Credits: 3

OPTO 1720

Diagnosis and Management of Non-strabismic Disorders of Accommodation, Binocular Vision, and Eye Movements

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This course reviews the common non-strabismus diagnoses of accommodation, binocular vision, and eye movements. Specialized testing techniques will be presented as they relate to these diagnoses including tests of accommodative function, heterophoria, fixation disparity, associated phoria, graphical analysis, and various measures of eye movement skills. Appropriate therapies for these diagnoses such as lenses, prisms, and vision therapy will be outlined, and applications to sports-related visual skills will be discussed.

Credits: 4

Prerequisites

OPTO 1624 Visual Science: Binocular Vision

OPTO 1722

Diagnosis and Management of Strabismus and Amblyopia I

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This course will emphasize the principles of evaluation and management of strabismus and amblyopia. An organized approach to a comprehensive evaluation is presented and includes the assessment of associated anomalies such as eccentric fixation, suppression, anomalous correspondence, and nonconcomitancy.

Credits: 4

Prerequisites
OPTO 1720 Diagnosis and Management of Non-strabismic Disorders of Accommodation, Binocular Vision, and Eye Movements

OPTO 1723

Diagnosis and Management of Strabismus and Amblyopia II

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This course presents theoretical and clinical considerations in the management of strabismus and amblyopia including the rationale and methods for using lenses, prisms, occlusion, vision therapy, medication, and surgical referrals. Associated anomalies are discussed in terms of their significance and management.

Credits: 3

Prerequisites

OPTO 1722 Diagnosis and Management of Strabismus and Amblyopia I

OPTO 1724

Optometry Business Management III

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This course is designed to provide educational information and exercises that facilitate the acquisition of knowledge and skills necessary for entering optometric practice. Students will be taught modern business principles and be able to select their preferred mode of practice. The desired outcome of the course is that the student will be able to select and take the steps needed to enter the best practice for their individual needs and future goals.

Credits: 2

OPTO 1725

Pediatric Optometry

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This course will focus on an understanding of vision development, as well as the utilization of diagnostic procedures that are developmentally appropriate. Diagnostic strategies for examining the infant, toddler, and pre-schooler will be presented. Application of pediatric tests for special needs patients and the diagnosis and management of vision problems and pathology commonly affecting this population will be discussed.

Credits: 1

Prerequisites

OPTO 1723 Diagnosis and Management of Strabismus and Amblyopia II

OPTO 1726

Visual Information Processing, and Vision Related Learning Problems

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This course will focus on visual information processing testing and give students an organized approach to identify deficits that may have an impact on reading and learning. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of learning problems will be presented. This course will provide the doctrine behind standardized testing. In addition, an overview of learning disabilities and dyslexia will be presented. A sequential management plan will be introduced for treating patients with visual processing disorders. Introduction to Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) and subsequent testing and training will be used to familiarize the student with current treatment options for ABI.

Credits: 3

Prerequisites

OPTO 1725 Pediatric Optometry

OPTO  1745

Epidemiology, Public Health and the Optometric Profession

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This course is an introduction to the epidemiology of ocular anomalies, overview of public and community health planning and care, and the role of the optometrist in community health promotion.

Credits: 2

OPTO  1760

Capstone Project: Data Collection and Analysis

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This course is a continuation of OPTO 1672. The student will further develop the capstone project, collect the data and perform statistical data analysis on data results.

Credits: 1

OPTO 1761

Capstone Project Poster Session

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Beginning in the second year, students will develop the skills to design a project and perform statistical analysis of data. The project may be an extensive in depth literature review, a series of clinical cases or experiments of basic or clinical research. Students will be mentored by a faculty member and devote a year to conduct the necessary literature review and collect data. Finally, students will present their manuscript in a publishable format, and deliver a public presentation of the work during the spring of their third professional year.

Credits: 3

OPTO 1770, 1771, 1772, 1773

Clinical Services VII, VIII, IX, X

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The student will provide primary eye care services in the Primary Care and Specialty Services (cornea and contact lenses, ocular disease, pediatric optometry, low vision rehabilitation, vision therapy, sports vision, and ocular prosthetics) at the Midwestern University Eye Institute or at selected external clinical sites. This course series focuses on progressive competence in the diagnosis, treatment and management of visual dysfunctions and ocular conditions. Students will participate in case based clinical seminars as well.

Credits: 7.5 credits each course

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1770 Clinical Services VII: OPTO 1654 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods VI and successful completion of preclinical proficiency exam
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1771 Clinical Services VIII: OPTO 1770 Clinical Services VII
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1772 Clinical Services IX: OPTO 1771 Clinical Services VIII
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1773 Clinical Services X: OPTO 1772 Clinical Services IX

OPTO 1780

Board Review: Applied Basic Science

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This is a review course in preparation for Part I (Applied Basic Science) of the National Board of Examiners in Optometry.

Credits: 3

OPTO 1785

Visual Rehabilitation

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Visual Rehabilitation is an entry level course, which presents the fundamental knowledge of clinical low vision care and rehabilitation necessary to perform basic low vision examinations during the fourth year clinical rotation, and in a practice setting after graduation. This course is an overview of the strategies for visual rehabilitation examination of patients with visual impairments, neurological issues following traumatic brain injury, and the geriatric population in general. The use of optical, non-optical and electronic devices in the rehabilitation process and the role of other professionals such as occupational therapists, social workers, orientation and mobility specialists and physical therapist will be discussed.

Credits: 3

OPTO 1787

Neuro-ophthalmic Disease

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The diagnosis and management of neuro-ophthalmic diseases and ocular manifestations of neurological systemic diseases are discussed. Components of the neuro-ophthalmic examination, neuroimaging, and specialty testing are presented.

Credits: 2

OPTO  1790

Clinical Case Analysis I/Evidence Based Medicine

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Case presentations from the college clinic or optometric literature that introduce clinical diagnosis, treatment and management of patients using evidence-based clinical protocols will be the focus.

Credits: 2

OPTO  1792

Clinical Case Analysis II/Evidence Based Medicine

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The course will present the diagnostic and treatment strategies for common ocular emergencies ranging from minimal trauma to sudden vision loss. Students will gain skills in practicing evidence-based medicine in the management of ocular disease.

Credits: 2

OPTO 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830

Clinical Services XI, XII, XIII, XIV

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The fourth professional year is designed to promote continued development of the student's emerging clinical problem-solving abilities. This is a series of full-time clinical rotations or externships. Direct patient care in individualized supervised clinical experiences is the focus. Interns will provide eye care services in the Primary Care and Specialty Services (cornea and contact lenses, ocular disease, pediatric optometry, low vision rehabilitation, electro-diagnosis, vision therapy, sports vision and ocular prosthetics) at the Midwestern University Eye Institute or at selected external rotation sites. Clinical decision making will be enhanced through challenging patient care problems that highlight or emphasize differential diagnosis, management decisions, referral decisions and follow-up, as well as address newer techniques and procedures for diagnosis and management. This course is comprised of patient care experiences as well as a seminar series presented weekly during each fourth year clinical rotation in the Eye Institute. The seminars highlight patient care topics including, but not limited to primary care, contact lenses, vision therapy, low vision rehabilitation, ocular therapeutics, practice management, and career preparation. Basic science and clinical science concepts are integrated within the context of these topics. The format of the seminar program includes lectures, workshops, laboratories, grand rounds, demonstrations and small group discussions.

Credits: 18 credits each course

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1800 Clinical Services XI: OPTO 1773 Clinical Services X
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1810 Clinical Services XII: OPTO 1800 Clinical Services XI
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1820 Clinical Services XIII: OPTO 1810 Clinical Services XII
  • Prerequisites for OPTO 1830 Clinical Services XIV: OPTO 1820 Clinical Services XIII

OPTO 1801

Board Review II: Patient Assessment and Management (Online)

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This is a review course in preparation for Part II (Patient Assessment and Management) of the National Board of Examiners in Optometry.

Credits: 2

PHAR 1601, 1621

General Pharmacology I. II

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These courses place an emphasis on the physical and chemical properties of the drugs, dosages, and therapeutic effects, methods of administration and indications/contraindications for the use of the drug.

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisites for PHAR 1601 General Pharmacology I, 3 credits: no prerequisite
  • Prerequisites for PHAR 1621 General Pharmacology II, 4 credits: PHAR 1601 General Pharmacology I