Hilal Arnouk, M.D., Ph.D.

Associate Professor
Downers Grove, IL

Home / Academics / Our Faculty / Hilal Arnouk, M.D., Ph.D.


Hilal Arnouk, MD, PhD is an Associate Professor at the Department of Pathology at Midwestern University. Dr. Arnouk has received his education and post-doctorate training at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, the State University of New York at Buffalo, the Medical College of Georgia and the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He has directed research studies in academia and biotech industry settings. His major areas of expertise include Cancer Immunotherapy, Biomarker Discovery and Precision Medicine. Dr. Arnouk also enjoys being an educator for professional students in the medical and biomedical sciences.

Associate Professor

Downers Grove, IL

College of Dental Medicine-Illinois
Chicago College of Optometry
College of Graduate Studies - IL
Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine


Dental Medicine
Master of Science in Precision Medicine
Osteopathic Medicine
Post-Graduate Certificate in Precision Medicine

Courses Taught

PATHD 1501: Pathology I, CCO [Course Director]

PATHD 1502: Pathology II, CCO [Course Director]

IBSSD 1535: Pathology, CDMI

PATHD 1602: Pathology II, CCOM

OPTOD 1761: Applied Basic Science Review, CCO

CLIND 1499: Student Research Elective, CCOM [Course Director]

PMMSG 601: Molecular Pathology of Cancer, Precision Medicine Program [Course Director]



Harnessing the potential of the human body's own immune system to attack malignant tumor cells has been the goal of intense scientific investigations in recent years, with advances in cancer biology and immunology enabling cancer immunotherapy to move from the bench-to-bedside. My research efforts are focused mainly on developing immunotherapeutic approaches to treat cancers such as glioblastoma multiforme, an aggressive form of brain cancers with an average survival of about a year from diagnosis despite combined surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. My approach to treat cancers relies on harnessing the ability of innate immune cells known as γδ T cells to recognize and eliminate the malignant tumor cells.

Immune cell attacking cancer cell

An immune cell attacking a cancer cell


As medical oncology treatments are moving from anatomical sites to molecular sites, I am working on identifying cancer molecular biomarkers and treatment targets using Proteomics. After the completion of the genome project, efforts are currently invested in identifying the proteins in human tissues, especially the ones correlated with chronic diseases such as cancer. I have combined the recent techniques of laser capture microdissection, differential two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify a specific ovarian tumor antigen and characterized biomarkers for breast cancer and cervical cancer. These identified markers have promising clinical utility in the early detection of cancers. I am particularly interested in the interactions between tumor cells and the immune system. Tumor cells are distinguished from normal cells in a tissue by the presence of unique proteins known as tumor antigens that arise due to mutations and chromosomal translocations (e.g., the BCR/ABL fusion protein in leukemia), expression of proto-oncogenes at a higher level than their normal cellular counterparts (e.g., as a result of amplification as for HER-2/neu in breast cancer), or inappropriate activation of genes expressed only during the fetal stages of life (e.g. melanoma specific antigens of the MAGE family). Proteomics provides the ideal tools to identify these tumor antigens, which allows subsequent targeting of these proteins by antibodies, immune cells or target-specific drugs.


Arnouk H, Yum G, Shah D. Cripto-1 as a Key Factor in Tumor Progression, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(17):9280.


Arnouk H & Hassan B (Eds.). (2021) Advances in Precision Medicine Oncology. (pp.1-216). London, UK: IntechOpen.


Arnouk H. and Panicker B. (2020) γδ T Cells as Immuno-Oncology Treatments in the Era of Precision Medicine. J Can Res Adv Ther 1(2): 24-29

Arnouk H (Ed.). (2019) Cancer Immunotherapy and Biological Cancer Treatments. (pp.1-101). London, United Kingdom: IntechOpen


Arnouk H. and Moqeet S. (2019) Are We There Yet? The Long and Winding Road to Cancer Immunotherapy, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.89553

Arnouk H. (Ed.) Advancements in Tumor Immunotherapy and Cancer Vaccines, ISBN 978-953-307-998-1. Open Access: http://www.intechopen.com/books/advancements-in-tumor-immunotherapy-and-cancer-vaccines

Arnouk H, Merkley MA, Podolsky RH, Stöppler H, Álvarez M, Mariategui J, Ferris D, Lee JR, and Dynan WS. Characterization of Molecular Markers Indicative of Cervical Cancer Progression. Proteomics-Clinical Applications, 5: 516-527

Arnouk H, Lee H, Zhang R, Chung H, Hunt RC, Jahng WJ. Early biosignature of oxidative stress in the retinal pigment epithelium. J Proteomics. 1; 74(2):254-61

Arnouk H, Zynda E, Wang XY, Hylander B, Manjili M, Repasky E, Subjeck JR and Kazim L. Tumour secreted grp170 chaperones full-length protein substrates and induces an adaptive anti-tumour immune response in vivo. Int J Hyperthermia. 26(4):366-75

Arnouk H, Masoud MH, Wang XY, Subjeck JR Kazim L. Tumors secreting glucose-regulated protein 170 (grp170) as cell-based vaccines. Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res, Vol 64 (7): 1267

Arnouk H, Denton L, Gillespie Y, Spencer T, Su Y, Langford C and Lamb L. Synergistic Effect of Temozolamide Chemotherapy and γδ T-cell-based Immunotherapy for Glioblastoma Multiforme. J Immunother, Volume 32, 9

Arnouk H, Lee H, Zhang R, Hunt DM, Hunt RC, Jahng W. Proteome Network of Oxidative Stress in the RPE. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(13):5922

Knight A, Arnouk H, Britt W, Gillespie GY, Cloud GA, et al. CMV-Independent Lysis of Glioblastoma by Ex Vivo Expanded/Activated Vδ1+ γδ T Cells. PLoS ONE 8(8): e68729

Wang XY, Arnouk H, Chen X, Kazim L, Repasky EA and Subjeck JR. Extracellular targeting of endoplasmic reticulum chaperone glucose-regulated protein 170 enhances tumor immunity to a poorly immunogenic melanoma. J.Immunology, 177: 1543-1551

Kulawiec M, Arnouk H, Desouki M, Kazim L, Still I  and Singh KK. Proteomic analysis of proteins involved in mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde response in human cancer cells. Cancer Biology & Therapy; 5(8):967-75

Manjili MH, Arnouk H, Knutson KL, Kazim L, Subjeck JR. Emergence of immune escape variant of mammary tumors that has distinct proteomic profile and reduced ability to induce danger signals. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 7, 1-9

Knight A, Arnouk H, Britt W, Gillespie GY, Cloud GA, Harkins L, Su Y, Lowdell MW, Lamb LS. Vδ1+ γδ T cells are cytotoxic against glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer Res. 70 (8): 1942

Bunworasate U. Arnouk H. Minderman H. O'Loughlin KL. Sait SN. Barcos M. Stewart CC. Baer MR. Erythropoietin-dependent transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome to acute monoblastic leukemia. Blood. 98(12): 3492-4

Lee H, Arnouk H, Sripathi S, Chen P, Zhang R, Bartoli M, Hunt RC, Hrushesky WJ, Chung H, Lee SH, Jahng WJ. Prohibitin as an oxidative stress biomarker in the eye. Int J Biol Macromol. 47(5):685-90.Int J Biol Macromol. 47(2):104-8

Lee H, Chung H, Arnouk H, Lamoke F, Hunt RC, Hrushesky WJ, Wood PA, Lee SH, Jahng WJ. Cleavage of the retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein RPE65 under oxidative stress. Int J Biol Macromol. 47(2):104-8

Bryant NL, Gillespie GY, Lopez RD, Markert JM, Cloud GA, Langford CP, Arnouk H, Su Y, Haines HL, Suarez-Cuervo C, Lamb LS Jr. Preclinical evaluation of ex vivo expanded/activated gammadelta T cells for immunotherapy of glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncol. 101(2):179-88

Merkley MA, Hildebrandt E, Podolsky RH, Arnouk H, Ferris D, Dynan WS, and Stöppler H. Large-scale analysis of protein expression changes in human keratinocytes immortalized by human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV 16) E6 and E7 oncogenes. Proteome Sci. 23; 7(1):29

Sharma S, Tammela J, Wang X, Arnouk H, Keitz B, Driscoll D, Lele S, Kazim L and Odunsi K. Characterization of an ovarian tumor specific antigen, Elongation Factor 1 Alpha-2, isolated by panning a synthetic phage-display scFv library with cultured human ovarian cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res. 5889 13(19)

Facciponte JG, Wang XY, Macdonald IJ, Park JE, Arnouk H, Grimm MJ, Li Y,Kim ,Manjili MH, Easton DP, Subjeck JR. Heat shock proteins HSP70 and GP96: structural insights. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 20:1-8

Manjili MH, Wang XY, MacDonald IJ, Arnouk H, Yang GY, Pritchard MT, Subjeck JR. Cancer immunotherapy and heat-shock proteins: promises and challenges. Expert Opin Biol Ther. (3): 363-73

Daraghma H, Untiveros G, Raskind A, Iaccarino E, Sandomenico A, Ruvo M, Arnouk H, Ciancio MJ, Cuevas‐Nunez M, Strizzi L. (2020) The role of Nodal and Cripto-1 in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Oral Dis; 00:1–11


American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)

American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB)

Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO)

Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Honor Society

Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SiTC)


IAMA Golden Stethoscope Award to Rachna Karumuri (CCOM 23), Role: Faculty Sponsor/Mentor

Kenneth A. Suarez Research Day Outstanding Presentation Award to Rachna Karumuri (CCOM 23), Role: Faculty Sponsor/Mentor

MWU Student One Health Award to Mourad Kerdjoudj (CCOM 23), Role: Faculty Sponsor/Mentor

IIllinois Osteopathic Medical Society’s Poster Award to Rachna Karumuri (CCOM 23), Role: Faculty Sponsor/Mentor

World Summit on Cancer Science and Oncology Research Special Recognition Award 

The University of Alabama at Birmingham Research Career Enhancement Award

The University of Alabama at Birmingham Postdoctoral Research Day Award

The Scientific Research Society Sigma Xi, State University of New York at Buffalo