N. Jim Rhodes, Pharm.D., M.S., BCPS

Associate Professor
Downers Grove, IL

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Dr. N. Jim Rhodes, PharmD, MSc, BCPS AQ-Infectious Diseases completed his Doctor of Pharmacy degree at the University of Florida and a Master of Science in Clinical Investigations at Northwestern University. He also completed four years of post-graduate training including a pharmacy practice residency, a specialty infectious diseases residency, and a two-year fellowship in Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy focusing on clinical outcomes and pharmacometrics. Dr. Rhodes is currently an Associate Professor at Midwestern University where he serves as a clinical and didactic instructor in infectious diseases therapeutics and clinical pharmacokinetics. In 2018, he joined the Midwestern University Pharmacometrics Center of Excellence. In 2020, he released a user interface for the Optimal Data Analysis non-parametric machine learning algorithm which is available in R. He is engaged in clinical-translational research at Midwestern University and Northwestern Memorial Hospital, where he practices clinically in acute-care infectious diseases and antimicrobial stewardship. He actively participates in infectious diseases organizations, publication peer-reviews, extramural funding reviews, and continuing education content for clinical pharmacy specialties.

Associate Professor

Downers Grove, IL

College of Pharmacy
Downers Grove Campus

Pharmacy Practice


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| 2018 | AQ-ID
Northwestern University | 2015 | M.SC
University of Florida | 2011 | Pharm.D.

Courses Taught

Representative courses lecturing in:

PPRAD 1663: Pharmacotherapeutics IV  (Spring)

PHARD 1671: Evidence Based Pharmacy Practice (Fall)

PPRAD 1301: Introduction to Research Elective (rolling)


Dr. Rhodes’s interests include anti-infective pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, clinical outcomes, and predictive modeling. His research is primarily focused on clarifying the antimicrobial-exposure-response profiles in clinical and translational models. His research program also seeks to evaluate how contemporary antimicrobial utilization influences resistance and clinical outcomes. He is actively involved in mentoring post-doctoral PharmD residents and fellows. For more information about the Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy Fellowship, see the following link.


Selected publications from over 80 peer reviewed manuscripts:

  1. Locci E, Liu J, Pais GM, Chighine A, Kahnamoei DA, Xanthos T, Chalkias A, Lee A, Hauser AR, Chang J, Rhodes NJ, d'Aloja E, Scheetz MH. Urinary Metabolomics From a Dose-Fractionated Polymyxin B Rat Model of Acute Kidney Injury. Int J
    Antimicrob Agents. 2022 Jul;60(1):106593. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2022.106593. Epub 2022 Apr 20. PMID: 35460851.

  2. O'Donnell JN, Putra V, Maring BL, Ozer EA, Belfiore GM, Rhodes NJ. Effect of omadacycline alone and in combination with meropenem against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2022
    Jun;29:147-149. doi: 10.1016/j.jgar.2022.03.006. Epub 2022 Mar 15. PMID: 35301177.

  3. Leung E, Crass RL, Jorgensen SCJ, Raybardhan S, Langford BJ, Moore WJ, Rhodes NJ. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Considerations of Alternate Dosing Strategies of Tocilizumab in COVID-19. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2022 Feb;61(2):155-165. doi: 10.1007/s40262-021-01092-0. Epub 2021 Dec 11. PMID: 34894345; PMCID: PMC8665708.

  4. Rohani R, Hoff B, Jain M, Philbrick A, Salama S, Cullina JF, Rhodes NJ. Defining the Importance of Age-Related Changes in Drug Clearance to Optimizing Aminoglycoside Dosing Regimens for Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2022 Mar;47(2):199-209. doi: 10.1007/s13318-021-00734-9. Epub 2021 Dec 9. PMID: 34882292.

  5. O'Donnell JN, Rhodes NJ, Miglis CM, Zembower TR, Qi C, Hoff BM, Barr VO, Gilbert EM, Bolon MK, Malczynski M, Gener J, Tran C, Catovic L, Postelnick MJ, Sutton SH, Scheetz MH. Impact of early antimicrobial stewardship intervention in patients with positive blood cultures: results from a randomized comparative study. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2022 Feb;59(2):106490. doi: 
    10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2021.106490. Epub 2021 Dec 3. PMID: 34871745.

  6. Rhodes NJ, Jozefczyk CC, Moore WJ, Yarnold PR, Harkabuz K, Maxwell R, Sutton SH, Silkaitis C, Qi C, Wunderink RG, Zembower TR. Characterizing Risk Factors for Clostridioides difficile Infection among Hospitalized Patients with
    Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Jun 17;65(7):e0041721. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00417-21. Epub 2021 Jun 17. PMID: 33875439; PMCID: PMC8373232.

  7. Rhodes NJ, Dairem A, Moore WJ, Shah A, Postelnick MJ, Badowski ME, Michienzi SM, Borkowski JL, Polisetty RS, Fong K, Spivak ES, Beardsley JR, Hale CM, Pallotta AM, Srinivas P, Schulz LT. Multicenter point prevalence evaluation of the utilization and safety of drug therapies for COVID-19 at the onset of the pandemic timeline in the United States. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2021 Mar 18;78(7):568-577. doi: 10.1093/ajhp/zxaa426. PMID: 33537767; PMCID: PMC7929420.

  8. Avedissian SN, Rohani R, Bradley J, Le J, Rhodes NJ. Optimizing Aminoglycoside Dosing Regimens for Critically Ill Pediatric Patients with Augmented Renal Clearance: a Convergence of Parametric and Nonparametric Population Approaches. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Mar 18;65(4):e02629-20. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02629-20. PMID: 33526481; PMCID: PMC8097479.

  9. Liu J, Tong SYC, Davis JS, Rhodes NJ, Scheetz MH; CAMERA2 Study Group. Vancomycin Exposure and Acute Kidney Injury Outcome: A Snapshot From the CAMERA2 Study. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 4;7(12):ofaa538. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofaa538. PMID: 33335938; PMCID: PMC7731530.

  10. Avedissian SN, Rhodes NJ, Shaffer CL, Tran L, Bradley JS, Le J. Antimicrobial prescribing for treatment of serious infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pediatrics: an expert review. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2021 Sep;19(9):1107-1116. doi: 10.1080/14787210.2021.1886923. Epub 2021 Feb 21. PMID: 33554692.

  11. Rhodes NJ, Wunderink RG. Empiric Carbapenems for Nosocomial Pneumonia: Is Hindsight Clearer in 2020? Chest. 2021 Mar;159(3):897-899. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2020.11.003. PMID: 33678269.

  12. Censi M, Rhodes NJ, Gettig JP, Lullo A, Borchert J. Effects of Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Characteristics on Postgraduate Year 1 Residency Match Rates. J Pharm Pract. 2020 Sep 15:897190020958263. doi:10.1177/0897190020958263. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32930028.

  13. Pincus NB, Bachta KER, Ozer EA, Allen JP, Pura ON, Qi C, Rhodes NJ, Marty FM, Pandit A, Mekalanos JJ, Oliver A, Hauser AR. Long-term Persistence of an Extensively Drug-Resistant Subclade of Globally Distributed Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clonal Complex 446 in an Academic Medical Center. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 12;71(6):1524-1531. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz973. PMID: 31583403; PMCID:

  14. Liu J, Rhodes NJ, Roberts JA, Pais GM, Turner B, Kiel PJ, Scheetz MH. β-lactam dosing strategies: Think before you push. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Aug 31:106151. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106151. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32882430.

  15. Al-Shaer MH, Neely MN, Liu J, Cherabuddi K, Venugopalan V, Rhodes NJ, Klinker K, Scheetz MH, Peloquin CA. Population Pharmacokinetics and Target Attainment of Cefepime in Critically Ill Patients and Guidance for Initial Dosing. Antimicrob
    Agents Chemother. 2020 Aug 20;64(9):e00745-20. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00745-20. PMID: 32601155; PMCID: PMC7449216.

  16. Liu J, Neely M, Lipman J, Sime F, Roberts JA, Kiel PJ, Avedissian SN, Rhodes NJ, Scheetz MH. Development of Population and Bayesian Models for Applied Use in Patients Receiving Cefepime. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2020 Aug;59(8):1027-1036. doi:
    10.1007/s40262-020-00873-3. PMID: 32140940; PMCID: PMC7222999.

  17. Avedissian SN, Pais GM, Liu J, Rhodes NJ, Scheetz MH. Piperacillin-Tazobactam Added to Vancomycin Increases Risk for Acute Kidney Injury: Fact or Fiction? Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 11;71(2):426-432. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz1189. PMID: 31833540.

  18. Hoff BM, Scheetz MH, Jain M, Cullina JF, Rhodes NJ. Exploring the Relationship between FEV1 Loss and Recovery and Aminoglycoside Pharmacokinetics in Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis: Implications for Clinical Dosing Strategies. Pharmacotherapy. 2020 Jun;40(6):584-591. doi: 10.1002/phar.2399. Epub 2020 May 5. PMID: 32259317.

  19. Pais GM, Liu J, Zepcan S, Avedissian SN, Rhodes NJ, Downes KJ, Moorthy GS, Scheetz MH. Vancomycin-Induced Kidney Injury: Animal Models of Toxicodynamics, Mechanisms of Injury, Human Translation, and Potential Strategies for Prevention. Pharmacotherapy. 2020 May;40(5):438-454. doi: 10.1002/phar.2388. Epub 2020 May 4. PMID: 32239518; PMCID: PMC7331087.

  20. Pais GM, Liu J, Avedissian SN, Hiner D, Xanthos T, Chalkias A, d'Aloja E, Locci E, Gilchrist A, Prozialeck WC, Rhodes NJ, Lodise TP, Fitzgerald JC, Downes KJ, Zuppa AF, Scheetz MH. Lack of synergistic nephrotoxicity between vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam in a rat model and a confirmatory cellular model. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 May 1;75(5):1228-1236. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkz563. PMID: 32011685.

  21. Liu J, Pais GM, Avedissian SN, Gilchrist A, Lee A, Rhodes NJ, Hauser AR, Scheetz MH. Evaluation of Dose-Fractionated Polymyxin B on Acute Kidney Injury Using a Translational In Vivo Rat Model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Apr 21;64(5):e02300-19. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02300-19. PMID: 32071049; PMCID: PMC7179599.

  22. Wagner JL, Rhodes NJ, Scheetz MH, Bosso JA, Goff DA, Rybak MJ, Davis SL; MAD-ID Research Network. Opportunities for antimicrobial stewardship among carbapenem-treated patients in 18 North American hospitals. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Jun;55(6):105970. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105970. Epub 2020 Apr 10. PMID: 32283176.

  23. Mahmoud A, Shah A, Nutley K, Nicolau DP, Sutherland C, Jain M, Scheetz MH, Rhodes NJ. Clinical pharmacokinetics of ceftolozane and tazobactam in an obese patient receiving continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration: A patient case and literature review. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2020 Jun;21:83-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jgar.2020.03.003. Epub 2020 Mar 19. PMID: 32200125.

  24. Wong G, Taccone F, Villois P, Scheetz MH, Rhodes NJ, Briscoe S, McWhinney B, Núñez-Núñez M, Ungerer J, Lipman J, Roberts J. Beta-lactam pharmacodynamics in Gram Negative bloodstream infections in the critically ill. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019 Oct 26. pii: dkz437. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkz437. PMID: 31665353.
  25. Avedissian SN, Rhodes NJ, Kim Y, Bradley J, Valdez JL, Le J. Augmented renal clearance of aminoglycosides using population-based pharmacokinetic modelling with Bayesian estimation in the paediatric ICU. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019 Oct 24. pii: dkz408. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkz408. PMID: 31648297
  26. Fjortoft N, Gettig J, Rhodes NJ, Scheetz MH. Writing and Thinking. Am J Pharm Educ. 2019. Accepted August 2019. ajpe7785
  27. Rhodes NJ, Wagner JL, Davis SL, Bosso JA, Goff DA, Rybak MJ, Scheetz MH; MAD-ID Research Network. Trends in and Predictors of Carbapenem Consumption across North American Hospitals: Results from a Multicenter Survey by the MAD-ID Research Network. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Jun 24;63(7). pii: e00327-19. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00327-19. Print 2019 Jul. PMID: 31061154.
  28. Avedissian SN, Rhodes NJ, Ng TMH, Rao AP, Beringer PM. The Potential for QTc Prolongation with Chronic Azithromycin Therapy in Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients. Pharmacotherapy. 2019 May 2. doi: 10.1002/phar.2270. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 31045258.
  29. Kabakov A, Rhodes NJ, Wenzel R. Discrepancies Between Patient Self-Reported and Electronic Health Record Documentation of Medication Allergies and Adverse Reactions in the Acute Care Setting: Room for Improvement. J Pharm Technol. 2019. 35(4):139-145. doi: 10.1177/8755122519840700. Epub 2019 April 9.
  30. Pais GM, Avedissian SN, O'Donnell JN, Rhodes NJ, Lodise TP, Prozialeck WC, Lamar PC, Cluff C, Gulati A, Fitzgerald JC, Downes KJ, Zuppa AF, Scheetz MH. Comparative performance of urinary biomarkers for vancomycin induced kidney injury according to timeline of injury. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Apr 15. pii: AAC.00079-19. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00079-19. PMID: 30988153.
  31. Hammond DA, McCreary EK, Rech MA, Smith MN, Yeo QM, Lusardi K, Rhodes NJ, Swanson J, Bland CM. Perceptions and Practices for Beta-Lactam Antibiotic Dosing, Administration, and Monitoring in Critically Ill Patients: Current Views and Use among Critical Care and Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. J Am Coll Clin Pharm. 2019. Epub ahead of print. doi:10.1002/jac5.1084
  32. Avedissian SN, Liu J, Rhodes NJ, Lee A, Pais GM, Hauser AR, Scheetz MH. A Review of the Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Polymyxin B. Antibiotics (Basel). 2019 Mar 22;8(1). pii: E31. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics8010031. Review. PMID: 30909507.
  33. Christensen AB, Barr VO, Martin DW, Anderson MM, Gibson AK, Hoff BM, Sutton SH, Widmaier V, Salim AA, Silkaitis C, Qi C, Zembower TR, Postelnick MJ, Rhodes NJ. Diagnostic stewardship of C. difficile testing: a quasi-experimental antimicrobial stewardship study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2019 Mar;40(3):269-275. doi: 10.1017/ice.2018.336. PMID: 30786942.
  34. Aljefri DM, Avedissian SN, Rhodes NJ, Postelnick MJ, Nguyen K, Scheetz MH. Vancomycin Area under the Curve and Acute Kidney Injury: A Meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 1. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz051. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30715208.
  35. Avedissian SN, Pais G, Joshi MD, Rhodes NJ, Scheetz MH. A Translational Pharmacokinetic Rat Model of Cerebral Spinal Fluid and Plasma Concentrations of Cefepime. mSphere. 2019 Jan 30;4(1). pii: e00595-18. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00595-18. PMID: 30700511.

    Complete List of Published Work in My Bibliography:


Organizations, Committees, and Service
American Society of Health system Pharmacists (ASHP)                             (July 2011 – Present)
                Midyear Educational Steering Committee                                     (Sept 2016 – Dec 2018)
                          Core Therapeutics Module Faculty                                      (Nov 2014 – Dec 2018)
Infectious Diseases Pharmacy Specialty Review Faculty                              (Oct 2017 – Dec 2018)

American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP)                                            (July 2012 – Present)

American Society for Microbiology (ASM)                                                      (August 2013 – Present)

Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA)                              (August 2018 – Present) 

Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP)                                       (Sept 2012 – Present)    
                                           Research Committee                                           (Sept 2014 – October 2018)
                                      Recognitions Committee                                           (October 2018 – Present)

European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases               (July 2017 – Present)

International Society of Pharmacometrics (ISOP)                                           (July 2021 – Present)


Title: Development of a Clinical Decision Algorithm for Adults Hospitalized With Pneumonia.
Award: 2020 New Investigator Award
Sponsor: American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy.
Period: 3/2020-9/2021
Role: PI

Title: Assessment of MODS and Personalized Exposures of Antibiotics (AMPLE)
Award: R01-HD103755
Period: 9/2021-8/2026
Role: Co-I (Scheetz/Downes MPIs)

Title: Systems-based pharmacologic modelling to elucidate beta-lactam clinical pharmacodynamics and define optimal dosing regimens in severe pneumonia.
Award: R01-AI158530
Period: 07/2022-6/2027
Role: PI


SIDP Young Investigator Award 2019: Awarded October 1, 2019 in recognition of research accomplishments of young investigators who show research promise in infectious diseases.

MWU CCP New Preceptor Excellence Award 2018-2019: Awarded May 22, 2019 in recognition of excellence in precepting Midwestern University CCP students on rotation.