Arizona College of Optometry

Glendale, AZ Campus

Course Descriptions

Arizona College of Optometry

Prerequisites are listed for those courses with such requirements. When no prerequisite is listed in a course description it is implied that there is no prerequisite.

Abbreviation/Number
Course Name

BASIG 1510

Basic Science Integrated Sequence I

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BASIG 1510 provides an overview of cell structure and function, including topics on molecular cell biology, metabolism, epithelium, general connective tissues, and blood. Module 1: Cell Biology outlines the basic histological structure and biochemical function of the cell. Module 2: Molecular Cell Biology and Metabolism focuses on transcription, translation, control of gene expression, and normal cell metabolism. Module 3: Epithelium, General Connective Tissues, and Blood defines the basic structure, function and biochemical characteristics of two basic histological tissues: epithelium and connective tissue. This module also includes an introduction to peripheral blood cells and hematopoiesis. The biochemical basis of hemostasis is described. Disorders of hemostasis and their consequences are discussed.

Credits: 4.0

BASIG 1511

Basic Science Integrated Sequence II

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BASIG 1511 provides an overview of cancer, genetics, lymphatic system and immunology. In Module 4: Cancer and Genetics, emphasis is placed on DNA mutations, polymorphisms, patterns of inheritance in human diseases, cytogenetics, and molecular basis of cancer. Module 5: Lymphatic System and Immunology, includes gross anatomy and histology of the lymphatic system and structure/function of the immune system. Basic precepts of the lymphatic system and immunology will be applied to inflammation, tissue repair and healing. Understanding of immunology will be applied to immune responses to infectious agents. Also included are: development and pathology of immunologically-mediated diseases, immune responses to transplants, cancer, HIV infection, and therapeutic use of drugs affecting the immune system.

Credits: 4.0

BASIG 1512

Basic Science Integrated Sequence III

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BASIG 1512 provides an overview of infectious diseases, integument and blood disorders. Module 6: Introduction to Infectious Diseases provides fundamental understanding of basic concepts in microbiology to accurately identify and manage infectious diseases. The information will aid in the management of the patient's health and general well-being. In Module 7: Integument and Blood Disorders, students combine their knowledge of epithelium, connective tissue, and peripheral blood to learn the basic structure and function of the integument. This module further describes common infections and pathologies of the integument as well as blood-borne infections and blood disorders.

Credits: 4.5

BASIG 1513

Basic Science Integrated Sequence IV

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BASIG 1513 provides an overview of the Musculoskeletal System (Module 8). Module 8 includes: the basic concepts of embryology, an introduction to gross anatomy, the structure and function of skeletal and smooth muscle and the development of bone and cartilage. Muscle membrane excitability and the molecular basis of muscle contraction are discussed. Diseases of bone and soft tissues are included. This module contains lectures and two laboratory sessions that describe upper extremity anatomy and function.

Credits: 2.5

BASIG 1514

Basic Science Integrated Sequence V

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BASIG 1514 provides an overview of the structure and function of the nervous system and is composed of one module titled Nervous System (Module 9). This module begins by discussing the nervous system in terms of its organization, support systems, and structure including the histology of nervous tissue, brain biochemistry, and mechanisms of neurotransmission including development of action potentials and synaptic transmission. This is followed by nervous system development, and then descriptions of the structure and function of the somatosensory pathways, descending motor systems, auditory, vestibular, and visual systems, and finally finishing with the cerebral cortex. Common clinical concerns are also discussed including relevant microbiology and pathology.

Credits: 4.5

BASIG 1515

Basic Science Integrated Sequence VI

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BASIG 1515 provides an overview of the structure and function of the Cardiovascular (Module 11) and Respiratory Systems (Module 12). Module 11: Cardiovascular System begins with a discussion of the anatomy, histology, and embryological development of the heart and circulatory system. Other topics included are cardiac muscle function, electrophysiology of cardiac muscle, cardiac cycle, and cardiac performance. Control of cardiovascular function integrates discussions of hemodynamics, regional circulation, and arterial blood pressure. Module 12: Respiratory System discusses the anatomy and histology of the respiratory system, mechanics of breathing, gas transport, and regulation of respiration. Relevant topics in microbiology, pathophysiology, and pathology are described in both modules.

Credits: 4.5

BASIG 1516

Basic Science Integrated Sequence VII

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BASIG 1516 provides an overview of the Endocrine System (Module 13) and the Gastrointestinal (GI) System (Module 14) In Module 13 the disciplines of histology and physiology describe the basic structure and normal function of the Endocrine System. Topics discussed include the hypothalamic control of endocrine secretion and regulation of individual endocrine organs. Common disorders of the Endocrine System are discussed by the pathology faculty. Module 14 Gastrointestinal System includes topics such as: chewing, swallowing and digestion. The gross anatomical, histological, physiological, microbiological, and pathological aspects of the GI system are discussed.

Credits: 3.5

BASIG 1517

Basic Science Integrated Sequence VIII

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BASIG 1517 provides an overview of the Urogenital System (Module 15). Topics included in the first part of the module are: the anatomy of the urogenital system, histology of the urinary system, renal tubular transport mechanisms, the production of urine, the control of extracellular fluid volume, and acid/base balance. The second part of the module provides an overview of the structure and function of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems. Diseases of the urogenital system are discussed.

Credits: 2.5

BASIG 1518

Basic Science Integrated Sequence IX

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BASIG 1518 provides an overview of the Gross Anatomy of the Head and Neck (Module 16). This module provides instruction in the fundamental head and neck gross anatomy information required for clinical training. Three-dimensional relationships among anatomical structures are reinforced by in-depth dissections of the head and neck. Students are expected to use this anatomical information to elucidate and solve case-based problems commonly seen in clinical practice. Student dissection of the head and neck is performed under faculty supervision during three 3-hour laboratories per week.

Credits: 4.0

COREG 1560, 1570, 1580

Interprofessional Healthcare

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The Interprofessional Healthcare course involves the Colleges of Dental Medicine, Health Sciences, Optometry, Osteopathic Medicine, Pharmacy and Veterinary Medicine. The course is designed to teach all clinically-based students about each other's clinical programs, how they might interact together as part of an interprofessional healthcare team, and the importance of an interprofessional approach to patient care. The class consists primarily of online presentations that are delivered by interprofessional team members from each of the clinical programs. Associated quizzes will also be completed online. Occasional lectures, panel presentations, or group assignments may also be incorporated.

Credits: Each course 0.5

OPTOG 1510, 1520, 1530

Clinical Services, Theory & Methods I, II, III

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This course sequence is an introduction to the theory and procedures that structure the examination of the eye. This includes instrumentation, examination methods, psychophysical techniques, appropriate patient instructions, protocols and recording of findings. Instruction is provided to foster progressive development of basic examination techniques including, but not limited to, medical and ocular history, visual acuity, color vision, cover test, depth perception, pupillary and visual pathways, external ocular examination, retinoscopy and refraction, and ophthalmoscopy.

Credits: Each course 3

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisite for OPTOG 1520 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods II: OPTOG 1510 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods I
  • Prerequisite for OPTOG 1530 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods III: OPTOG 1520 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods II

OPTOG 1511

Contemporary Issues in Health Care and Ethics

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This course introduces students to the current issues faced by providers of primary eye care as well as ethical precepts that serve as foundations to providing health care to the public. Included is the history of optometry, the ethics and code of honor expectations of a professional program student, and the dynamic role of optometry in present day health systems.

Credits: 0.5

OPTOG 1522

Optometry Business Management I

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This course surveys the profession of optometry up to present day, provides details about planning for personal, professional and financial goals, managing debt, and building credit worthiness to prepare for professional life. Optometric career choices, modes and scope of optometric practice, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the various paths are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the steps that should be initiated to prepare for a professional career.

Credits: 2

OPTOG 1525

Visual Optics

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This course considers the eye as an optical system, including schematic eye models, refractive error, optical characteristics of the eye, stimulus to accommodation, retinal image size and quality, purkinje images, entoptic phenomena, presbyopia, aphakia, intraocular implants and effects of radiation.

Credits: 2

Prerequisites

OPTOG 1550 Geometrical and Physical Optics II

OPTOG 1540, 1550

Geometrical and Physical Optics I, II

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The course sequence provides an introduction to the qualitative and quantitative characterization of the behavior of light and optical systems as related to optometry. In Geometrical Optics, the basics of refraction at plane and spherical surfaces, image formation and magnification, spherical and sphero-cylindrical thin lenses, thin lens eye models, thick lenses, prisms, reflection and mirrors will be presented. Physical Optics presents conceptual and quantitative understanding of aberrations, characteristics of electromagnetic waves, diffraction, interference, fluorescence, polarization, scattering, photometry, lasers, and other applications.

Credits: Each course 4

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisite for OPTOG 1540 Geometrical and Physical Optics II: none
  • Prerequisite for OPTOG 1550 Geometrical and Physical Optics II: OPTO 1540 Geometrical and Physical Optics I

OPTOG 1560

Ocular Anatomy and Physiology I

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The course presents a detailed discussion of ocular gross and microscopic anatomy as a basis for understanding systemic and ocular pathophysiology as well as some anomalies of monocular and binocular visual processes. A general review of histology is presented as background for an intensive consideration of the microscopic anatomy of the normal eye. The course is presented through a lecture and workshop format.

Credits: 2

OPTOG 1580

Ocular Anatomy and Physiology II

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The course allows the student to understand and appreciate the physiology and pathophysiology of the tissues and physiological units of the eye including the eyelids, ocular tear film, cornea, aqueous humor, iris, lens, vitreous, retina and the visual pathways. Students will gain an understanding of the relationship of ocular physiology to ocular pharmacology and ocular pathophysiology.

Credits: 2

Prerequisites

OPTOG 1560 Ocular Anatomy and Physiology I

OPTOG 1620

Visual Science: Monocular Sensory Processing

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The basic aspects of monocular vision, including light and dark adaptation, color vision, spatial and temporal resolution will be discussed. Gross electrical potentials and photometry will be explained. Students will learn how to measure visual performance and understand its application to clinical optometry.

Credits: 3

OPTOG 1622

Visual Science: Ocular Motility

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This course focuses on characteristics, control, and deficits of the five somatic eye movement systems (convergence, saccadic version, pursuit, version, fixation maintenance, vestibular reflex) and the autonomic systems subserving accommodation, pupillary diameter and reflexes. The physiology of the extraocular muscles and their relationship to strabismus is included in the course.

Credits: 2

OPTOG 1624

Visual Science: Binocular Vision

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Students will learn about binocular sensory mechanisms of vision. This course will focus on the geometry of space and stereovision, and the underlying neuroanatomy and physiology of binocular vision. This course will include a discussion of the horopter, retinal correspondence, stereopsis, fusion, fixation disparity, rivalry and aniseikonia.

Credits: 4

OPTOG 1630, 1632

Ophthalmic Optics I, II

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This course sequence covers the study of the physical and optical characteristics of ophthalmic lenses and prisms; the design and application of single vision, multifocal, occupational and progressive lens; the benefits and applications of ophthalmic lens materials, absorptive lenses, and lens treatments; and the proper measurement and fitting of ophthalmic lenses and frames.

Credits: Each course 4

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisite for OPTOG 1630 Ophthalmic Optics I: OPTOG 1550 Geometrical and Physical Optics II
  • Prerequisite for OPTOG 1632 Ophthalmic Optics II: OPTOG 1630 Ophthalmic Optics I

OPTOG 1640, 1642, 1644, 1746

Ocular Disease I, II, III, IV

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This course sequence covers signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, clinical course, differential diagnosis, treatment and management of ocular diseases of the anterior and posterior segment of the eye and ocular adnexa.

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisite for OPTOG 1640 Ocular Disease I, 3 credits: none
  • Prerequisite for OPTOG 1642 Ocular Disease II, 3 credits: OPTOG 1640 Ocular Disease I
  • Prerequisite for OPTOG 1644 Ocular Disease III, 3 credits: OPTOG 1642 Ocular Disease II
  • Prerequisite for OPTOG 1746 Ocular Disease IV, 2 credits: OPTOG 1644 Ocular Disease III

OPTOG 1648, 1649, 1740

Contact Lens I, II, III

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This course sequence includes a discussion of the theory and practice of contact lens design and contact lens fitting methodologies. Areas of discussion include corneal topography, design of materials, fabrication and modification of contact lenses, fitting and evaluation methodologies and procedures. This course sequence will also explore advanced contact lens applications for high and irregular astigmatism, keratoconus, presbyopia, post-surgical and irregular corneas, corneal reshaping, and ocular prosthetics.

Credits: Each course 3

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisite for OPTOG 1649 Contact Lens II: OPTO 1648 Contact Lens I
  • Prerequisite for OPTOG 1740 Contact Lens III: OPTO 1649 Contact Lens II

OPTOG 1650, 1652, 1654

Clinical Services, Theory & Methods IV, V, VI

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This course sequence covers instrumentation, examination methods, psychophysical techniques, appropriate patient instructions and communication skills, protocols, and recording of findings. Instruction is provided to foster progressive development of basic examination techniques and assessment of binocular skills and ocular health. Students must successfully complete a proficiency examination at the end of each course before progressing into the next course in the sequence.

Credits: Each course 3

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisites for OPTOG 1650 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods IV: OPTOG 1530 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods III
  • Prerequisites for OPTOG 1652 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods V: OPTOG 1650 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods IV
  • Prerequisites for OPTOG 1654 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods VI: OPTOG 1652 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods V

OPTOG 1655

Clinical Services Proficiency

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The objective of this course is to assess and verify the optometry student’s level of competency in primary care optometry patient care skills. The course is designed to refine clinical procedures and culminates in a comprehensive clinical skills proficiency examination. Successful completion of this course qualifies the student to enter the Clinical Services VII – X course sequence.

Credits: 1

Prerequisite

OPTOG 1652 Clinical Services, Theory and Methods V

OPTOG 1670

Research Design and Biostatistics

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Principles of research design and the application of biostatistical methods will be discussed. The course will include an overview of potential studies that the student may choose for their capstone project.

Credits: 1

OPTOG 1672

Capstone Project: Literature Search and Study Design

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The student will decide on a project hypothesis, conduct a literature search and design the study. The project may be an extensive literature review, a series of clinical cases or an experiment of basic or clinical research design under the mentorship of a faculty member.

Credits: 1

OPTOG 1675

Visual Neurophysiology

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This course discusses the neurophysiological basis of vision, from detection of light by the retina to the processing of complex visual scenes by the visual association cortex. Specific topics include basic neuronal physiology, signal transduction, receptive field construction, subcortical and cortical visual pathways, high-order visual processing, neurophysiological techniques for studying the visual system, and visual disorders with a neurophysiological basis.

Credits: 2

OPTOG 1691

Ocular Pharmacology

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This course discusses the pharmaceutical treatment of ocular diseases. It will cover, in detail, the selection of drugs appropriate for the treatment of important ocular disorders and their methods of use. In-class practice of the use of pharmaceutical agents in disease treatment will be an important part of the learning experience. Specific topics include major classes of drugs used to treat ocular disorders and how they are employed, side effects of the use of both ocular and systemic drugs, common formulations used for ocular drugs, new pharmaceutical agents, and general pharmacology and toxicology.

Credits: 2

Prerequisites

PHARG 1602, 1623 General Pharmacology I, II

OPTOG 1700

Clinical Medicine/Physical Assessment Laboratory

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This course is a multidisciplinary course that is team taught by faculty from various Midwestern University colleges and demonstrates the importance of the interdisciplinary approach as related to eye and vision care. This course is designed to provide a foundation for taking a medical history, performing a physical (H&P), evaluating the head, neck and pulmonary functions while covering various systems of the body (dermatology, rheumatology, pediatrics, and neurology). Ocular, subcutaneous, intra muscular and intravenous injections are a prominent aspect of the course as well as suturing, wound maintenance and autologous serum laboratories.

Credits: 3

OPTOG 1720

Diagnosis and Management of Non-strabismic Disorders of Accommodation, Binocular Vision, and Eye Movements

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This course reviews the common non-strabismus diagnoses of accommodation, binocular vision, and eye movements. Specialized testing techniques will be presented as they relate to these diagnoses including tests of accommodative function, heterophoria, fixation disparity, associated phoria, graphical analysis, and various measures of eye movement skills. Appropriate therapies for these diagnoses such as lenses, prisms, and vision therapy will be outlined, and applications to sports-related visual skills will be discussed.

Credits: 4

Prerequisites

OPTOG 1624 Visual Science: Binocular Vision

OPTOG 1722

Diagnosis of Strabismus and Amblyopia

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This course will emphasize the principles and techniques of evaluating patients presenting with strabismus and amblyopia. An organized approach to a comprehensive evaluation is presented with an emphasis on the administration and interpretation of diagnostic testing procedures including the assessment of associated anomalies such as eccentric fixation, comitancy and anomalous correspondence.

Credits: 4

Prerequisites

OPTOG 1720 Diagnosis and Management of Non-strabismic Disorders of Accommodation, Binocular Vision, and Eye Movements

OPTOG 1723

Treatment and Management of Strabismus and Amblyopia

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This course presents theoretical and clinical considerations in the management of strabismus and amblyopia including the rationale and methods for using lenses, prisms, occlusion, vision therapy, medication, and surgical referrals. Associated anomalies are discussed in terms of their significance and management.

Credits: 3

Prerequisites

OPTOG 1722 Diagnosis of Strabismus and Amblyopia

OPTOG 1724

Optometry Business Management III

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This course is designed to provide educational information and exercises that facilitate the acquisition of knowledge and skills necessary for entering optometric practice. Students will be taught modern business principles and be able to select their preferred mode of practice. The desired outcome of the course is that the student will be able to select and take the steps needed to enter the best practice for their individual needs and future goals.

Credits: 2

OPTOG 1725

Pediatric Optometry

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This course presents vision development and diagnostic strategies for examining infants, toddlers, and pre-schoolers. Discussion on how vision development guides treatment and management options in the pediatric population will be included. Application of pediatric tests for special needs patients and the diagnosis and management of vision problems and pathology commonly affecting this population will be discussed.

Credits: 1

Prerequisites

OPTOG 1722 Diagnosis of Strabismus and Amblyopia

OPTOG 1726

Visual Information Processing, and Vision Related Learning Problems

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This course focuses on visual information processing testing and give students an organized approach to identify visual deficits that may have an impact on reading and learning. The doctrine behind standardized testing will be discussed. An overview of learning disabilities will be presented and students will be introduced to the multidisciplinary approach in management of vision related learning problems. Sequential management plans will be provided for treating patients with visual processing disorders. Students will be familiarized with current treatment options for acquired brain injury.

Credits: 3

Prerequisites

OPTOG 1725 Pediatric Optometry

OPTOG 1727

Optometry Business Management II

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The emphasis of this course is on enhancing a student’s interpersonal skills and professionalism as part of patient care. Using a lecture/workshop format, emphasis is placed on the ethical implications of professional practice. Doctor/patient communication methods, practice marketing, patient retention, office production and benchmarking are presented. Clinico-legal aspects from record keeping, patient confidentiality, documentation, coding and billing, record release, and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) issues are also covered.

Credits: 2

OPTOG 1745

Epidemiology, Public Health and the Optometric Profession

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This course is an introduction to the epidemiology of ocular anomalies, overview of public and community health planning and care, and the role of the optometrist in community health promotion.

Credits: 2

OPTOG 1760

Capstone Project: Data Collection and Analysis

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This course is a continuation of OPTO 1672. The student will further develop the capstone project, collect the data and perform statistical data analysis on data results.

Credits: 1

OPTOG 1761

Capstone Project Poster Session

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Beginning in the second year, students will develop the skills to design a project and perform statistical analysis of data. The project may be an extensive in depth literature review, a series of clinical cases or experiments of basic or clinical research. Students will be mentored by a faculty member and devote a year to conduct the necessary literature review and collect data. Finally, students will present their manuscript in a publishable format, and deliver a public presentation of the work during the spring of their third professional year.

Credits: 3

Prerequisite

OPTOG 1672 Capstone Project: Literature Search and Study Design

OPTOG 1770, 1771, 1772, 1773

Clinical Services VII, VIII, IX, X

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The student will provide primary eye care services in the Primary Care and Specialty Services (contact lens, pediatrics and vision therapy, electrodiagnostics, and ocular prosthetics) at the Midwestern University Eye Institute or at selected external clinical sites. This course series focuses on progressive competence in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of visual dysfunction and ocular conditions. Students will additionally participate in case-based clinical workshops and seminars involving ophthalmic lasers, advanced procedures, test interpretation, pathology and ocular disease management.

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisites for OPTOG 1770 Clinical Services VII, 6 credits: OPTOG 1654 Clinical Services, Theory & Methods VI, and OPTOG 1655 Clinical Services Proficiency
  • Prerequisites for OPTOG 1771 Clinical Services VIII, 7.5 credits: OPTOG 1770 Clinical Services VII
  • Prerequisites for OPTOG 1772 Clinical Services IX, 7.5 credits: OPTOG 1771 Clinical Services VIII
  • Prerequisites for OPTOG 1773 Clinical Services X, 7.5 credits: OPTOG 1772 Clinical Services IX

OPTOG 1780

Board Review: Applied Basic Science

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This is a review course in preparation for Part I (Applied Basic Science) of the National Board of Examiners in Optometry.

Credits: 3

OPTOG 1785

Visual Rehabilitation

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Visual Rehabilitation is an entry level course, which presents the fundamental knowledge of clinical low vision care and rehabilitation necessary to perform basic low vision examinations during the fourth year clinical rotation, and in a practice setting after graduation. This course is an overview of the strategies for visual rehabilitation examination of patients with visual impairments, neurological issues following traumatic brain injury, and the geriatric population in general.

Credits: 3

OPTOG 1787

Neuro-ophthalmic Disease

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The diagnosis and management of neuro-ophthalmic diseases and ocular manifestations of neurological systemic diseases are discussed. Components of the neuro-ophthalmic examination, neuroimaging, and specialty testing are presented.

Credits: 2

OPTOG 1790

Clinical Case Analysis I/Evidence Based Medicine

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This course will focus on various aspects of evidence based medicine. Students will learn how to analyze medical literature and apply evidence-based information to patient scenarios through case presentations and group discussions.

Credits: 2

OPTOG 1792

Clinical Case Analysis II/Evidence Based Medicine

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Building on skills learned in OPTO 1790, students will participate in more detailed case analysis while continuing the study and application of medical literature in patient care.

Credits: 2

OPTOG 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830

Clinical Services XI, XII, XIII, XIV

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The fourth professional year is designed to promote continued development of the student's emerging clinical problem-solving abilities. This is a series of full-time clinical rotations or externships. Direct patient care in individualized supervised clinical experiences is the focus. Interns will provide eye care services in the Primary Care and Specialty Services (cornea and contact lenses, ocular disease, pediatric optometry, low vision rehabilitation, electro-diagnosis, vision therapy, sports vision and ocular prosthetics) at the Midwestern University Eye Institute or at selected external rotation sites. Clinical decision making will be enhanced through challenging patient care problems that highlight or emphasize differential diagnosis, management decisions, referral decisions and follow-up, as well as address newer techniques and procedures for diagnosis and management. This course is comprised of patient care experiences as well as a seminar series presented weekly during each fourth year clinical rotation in the Eye Institute.

Credits: Each course 18

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisites for OPTOG 1800 Clinical Services XI: OPTOG 1773 Clinical Services X
  • Prerequisites for OPTOG 1810 Clinical Services XII: OPTOG 1800 Clinical Services XI
  • Prerequisites for OPTOG 1820 Clinical Services XIII: OPTOG 1810 Clinical Services XII
  • Prerequisites for OPTOG 1830 Clinical Services XIV: OPTOG 1820 Clinical Services XIII

PHARG 1602, 1623

General Pharmacology I, II

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These courses place an emphasis on the physical and chemical properties of the drugs, dosages, and therapeutic effects, methods of administration and indications/contraindications for the use of the drug.

Prerequisites
  • Prerequisite for PHARG 1602 General Pharmacology I, 3 credits: no prerequisite
  • Prerequisite for PHARG 1623 General Pharmacology II, 4 credits: PHARG 1602 General Pharmacology I