N. Jim Rhodes, PharmD, MSc, BCPS

Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Practice

Rhodes, NJ Image 2015Midwestern University
Chicago College of Pharmacy
Department of Pharmacy Practice 
Alumni Hall #364

555 31st St.
Downers Grove, IL 60515
Office: (630) 515-6115 (main)
Office: (630)-515-7376 (direct)
e-mail: nrhode@midwestern.edu; nrhodes@nm.org 



Dr. N. Jim Rhodes, PharmD, MSc, BCPS completed his Doctor of Pharmacy degree at the University of Florida and a Master of Science degree in Clinical Investigations at Northwestern University. He completed four years of post-graduate training including: a Pharmacy Practice residency, a specialty Infectious Diseases residency, and a two-year fellowship in Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy focusing on clinical outcomes and pharmacometrics. Dr. Rhodes is currently an Assistant Professor at Midwestern University where he serves as a clinical and didactic instructor in infectious diseases therapeutics and clinical pharmacokinetics.  He is engaged in clinical-translational research at Midwestern University and Northwestern Memorial Hospital, where he practices clinically in acute-care infectious diseases and antimicrobial stewardship.

Dr. Rhodes has authored multiple original research manuscripts in the area of anti-infective pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. He also serves as a reviewer for several infectious diseases and pharmacy journals. His research is primarily focused on clarifying the antimicrobial drug-exposure and disease-response profiles that modify clinical outcomes in an effort to optimize the use of currently available antimicrobial agents. His research program also seeks to evaluate how contemporary antimicrobial exposures influence bacterial responses. As an antimicrobial steward, Dr. Rhodes is also interested in relating antimicrobial utilization trends to patient outcomes in order to inform antimicrobial stewardship policies. He is actively engaged in both local and national professional societies and organizations.


MSc Clinical Investigations Northwestern University 2015
PharmD  Pharmacy   University of Florida 2011


PGY-3/4 Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy Midwestern University 2015
PGY-2 Infectious Diseases Midwestern University 2013
PGY-1 Pharmacy Practice   Northwestern Medicine 2012


Focus I: Identification of antimicrobial exposure-response determinants in critically-ill patient populations.

Approved dosing regimens for anti-infective agents are often based on observations in clinical trail study populations. The pharmacokinetic profiles of these agents achieved in real-world patients can differ substantially from those seen in clinical trials. Therefore, an urgent need exists to develop population-specific pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic exposure-response models in order to design the best-possible dosing regimens for anti-infective agents. In particular, understanding the dynamic changes in patients with critical illness that result in altered drug clearance will lead to the development of dosing regimens aimed at improving the care of these patients by improving antimicrobial efficacy.

Focus II: Evaluate bacterial responses to contemporary antimicrobial drug exposures using a clinical-translational paradigm.

Contemporary antimicrobial dosing regimens are frequently designed using insights gained from pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses. These approaches seek to optimize the antimicrobial exposures achieved clinically by targeting the specific exposure-thresholds associated with bacterial killing in preclinical studies. However, less is known about how contemporary clinical dosing regimens impact bacterial responses. As critically ill patients often experience alterations in drug clearance and disposition, bacterial responses to the resulting exposures may also be altered. Translational exposure-response models that leverage preclinical and clinical insights can be used to evaluate and test a variety of drug exposure profiles preclinically, which can ultimately be linked to exposures in humans: facilitating the development of optimally effective antimicrobial dosing regimens. 

Focus III:  Relate antimicrobial consumption to clinical outcomes to improve Antimicrobial Stewardship efforts.

Antibiotic-resistance among contemporary clinical bacterial isolates has reached epidemic proportions. Antimicrobial stewardship programs are answering the national call to develop and implement strategies to slow bacterial resistance, expand the use of rapid diagnostic testing, and to advance research efforts aimed at combatting these resistant pathogens. Antimicrobial Stewardship programs seek to promote appropriate use of antibiotics when needed while discourging inappropriate overuse. To meet the challenge of slowing antibiotic resistance while promoting effective use of antibiotics, there is a clear need to develop systematic strategies to monitor, classify, and trend antibiotic use and resistance. Unfortunately, the link between antimicrobial consumption and changes in antimicrobial resistance at the population level is not well defined. The development of local and national antimicrobial stewardship metrics and thresholds for intervention will lead to improved understanding of population level drug-exposure/drug-resistance relationships and will ultimately facilitate development of evidence-based interventions designed to improve the care of patients receiving antimicrobial therapy.

Selected Publications

  1. Miglis C, Rhodes NJ, Avedissian S, Kubin CJ, Yin MT, Nelson B, Pai MP, Scheetz MH. Population pharmacokinetics of polymyxin B in acutely ill adult patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Jan 8. pii: AAC.01475-17. doi:10.1128/AAC.01475-17. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29311071.
  2. Kubin CJ, Nelson BC, Miglis C, Scheetz MH, Rhodes N, Avedissian S, Cremers S, Yin MT. Population Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Polymyxin B from Clinical Samples. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Jan 8. pii: AAC.01493-17. doi:10.1128/AAC.01493-17. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29311066.
  3. Crew PE, Rhodes NJ, O'Donnell JN, Miglis C, Gilbert EM, Zembower TR, Qi C,Silkaitis C, Sutton SH, Scheetz MH. Correlation between hospital-level antibiotic consumption and incident health care facility-onset Clostridium difficile infection. Am J Infect Control. 2017 Nov 21. pii: S0196-6553(17)31067-2. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2017.09.015. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29169938.
  4. Rhodes NJ, Liu J, O'Donnell JN, Dulhunty JM, Abdul-Aziz MH, Berko PY, NadlerB, Lipman J, Roberts JA. Prolonged Infusion Piperacillin-Tazobactam Decreases Mortality and Improves Outcomes in Severely Ill Patients: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Crit Care Med. 2018 Feb;46(2):236-243. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000002836. PubMed PMID: 29116995.
  5. O'Donnell JN, Rhodes NJ, Lodise TP, Prozialeck WC, Miglis CM, Joshi MD, Venkatesan N, Pais G, Cluff C, Lamar PC, Briyal S, Day JZ, Gulati A, Scheetz MH. 24-Hour Pharmacokinetic Relationships for Vancomycin and Novel Urinary Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Oct 24;61(11). pii:e00416-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00416-17. Print 2017 Nov. PubMed PMID: 28807910; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5655072.
  6. O'Donnell JN, Rhodes NJ, Miglis CM, Catovic L, Liu J, Cluff C, Pais G, Avedissian S, Joshi MD, Griffin B, Prozialeck W, Gulati A, Lodise TP, Scheetz MH. Dose, duration, and animal sex predict vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury in preclinical studies. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2017 Aug 10. pii:S0924-8579(17)30304-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2017.08.012. [Epub ahead ofprint] PubMed PMID: 28803934.
  7. Joshi MD, O'Donnell JN, Venkatesan N, Chang J, Nguyen H, Rhodes NJ, Pais G,Chapman RL, Griffin B, Scheetz MH. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Rich Pharmacokinetic Sampling Schemes in Translational Rat Toxicity Models With Vancomycin. Clin Transl Sci. 2017 Nov;10(6):496-502. doi: 10.1111/cts.12484.Epub 2017 Jul 4. PubMed PMID: 28675684; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5698807.
  8. Gilbert EM, Zembower TR, Rhodes NJ, Qi C, Reiner S, Malczynski M, Scheetz MH. Factors contributing to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. horizontal transmission events: exploration of the role of antibacterial consumption. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017 Sep;89(1):72-77. doi:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2017.05.014. Epub 2017 Jun 2. PubMed PMID: 28669681.
  9. Rhodes NJ, Grove ME, Kiel PJ, O'Donnell JN, Whited LK, Rose DT, Jones DR, Scheetz MH. Population pharmacokinetics of cefepime in febrile neutropenia: implications for dose-dependent susceptibility and contemporary dosing regimens. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2017 Sep;50(3):482-486. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2017.04.008. Epub 2017 Jun 28. PubMed PMID: 28668694.
  10. Miglis C, Rhodes NJ, Kuti JL, Nicolau DP, Van Wart SA, Scheetz MH. Defining the impact of severity of illness on time above the MIC threshold for cefepime in Gram-negative bacteraemia: a 'Goldilocks' window. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2017Sep;50(3):487-490. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2017.04.023. Epub 2017 Jun 28.PubMed PMID: 28668683.
  11. Miglis C, Rhodes NJ, Avedissian SN, Zembower TR, Postelnick M, Wunderink RG, Sutton SH, Scheetz MH. A Simple Microsoft Excel Method to Predict Antibiotic Outbreaks and Underutilization. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017Jul;38(7):860-862. doi: 10.1017/ice.2017.72. Epub 2017 May 3. PubMed PMID:28464971.
  12. Lee BJ, Rao SN, Wang SK, Lee JY, Lakada IY, Gilbert EM, Barr VO, PostelnickMJ, Sutton SH, Zembower TR, Bolon M, Scheetz MH, Rhodes NJ. Implementation of acefazolin-based stewardship pathway for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections paired with infectious diseases consultation. Int JAntimicrob Agents. 2017 May;49(5):650-654. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.12.021. Epub 2017 Mar 6. PubMed PMID: 28279787.
  13. O'Donnell JN, Ghossein C, Rhodes NJ, Peng J, Lertharakul T, Pham CK, Scheetz MH. Eight unexpected cases of vancomycin associated acute kidney injury with contemporary dosing. J Infect Chemother. 2017 May;23(5):326-332. doi:10.1016/j.jiac.2016.12.011. Epub 2017 Jan 18. PubMed PMID: 28109741; PubMedCentral PMCID: PMC5386811.
  14. Lee BJ, Rhodes NJ, Scheetz MH, McLaughlin MM. Engaging Pharmacy Students inResearch Through Near-Peer Training. Am J Pharm Educ. 2017 Nov;81(9):6340. doi:10.5688/ajpe6340. PubMed PMID: 29302091; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5738949.
  15. Watson WA, Rhodes NJ, Echenique IA, Angarone MP, Scheetz MH. Resolution of acyclovir-associated neurotoxicity with the aid of improved clearance estimatesusing a Bayesian approach: A case report and review of the literature. J ClinPharm Ther. 2017 Jun;42(3):350-355. doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12520. Epub 2017 Mar 29.Review. PubMed PMID: 28370067; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5404941.
  16. Lizza BD, Rhodes NJ, Esterly JS, Toy C, Lopez J, Scheetz MH. Impact of body mass index on clinical outcomes in patients with gram-negative bacteria bloodstream infections. J Infect Chemother. 2016 Oct;22(10):671-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2016.07.006. PMID: 27590417
  17. Whited L, Grove M, Rose D, Rhodes NJ, Scheetz MH, O'Donnell JN, Neeb J, Thoele K, Jones DR, Lowe C, Moore D, Kiel PJ. Pharmacokinetics of Cefepime in Patients with Cancer and Febrile Neutropenia in the Setting of Hematologic Malignancies or Hematopoeitic Cell Transplantation. Pharmacotherapy. 2016 Sep;36(9):1003-10. doi: 10.1002/phar.1807. PMID: 27496678
  18. Rhodes NJ, Prozialeck WC, Lodise TP, Venkatesan N, O'Donnell JN, Pais G, Cluff C, Lamar PC, Neely MN, Gulati A, Scheetz MH. Evaluation of Vancomycin Exposures Associated with Elevations in Novel Urinary Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury in Vancomycin-Treated Rats. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Sep 23;60(10):5742-51. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00591-16. PMID: 27431226
  19. Phillips JA, McLaughlin MM, Rose C, Gallagher JC, Gettig JP, Rhodes NJ. Student Characteristics Associated with Successful Matching to a PGY1 Residency Program. Am J Pharm Educ. 2016 Jun 25;80(5):84. doi: 10.5688/ajpe80584. PMID: 27402987
  20. Rhodes NJ, Gilbert EM, Skoglund E, Esterly JS, Postelnick MJ, McLaughlin MM. Prediction of inventory sustainability during a drug shortage. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2016 Jul 15;73(14):1094-8. doi: 10.2146/ajhp150532. PMID: 27385704
  21. Rhodes NJ, Wagner JL, Gilbert EM, Crew PE, Davis SL, Scheetz MH. Days of Therapy and Antimicrobial Days: Similarities and Differences Between Consumption Metrics. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2016 Aug;37(8):971-3. doi: 10.1017/ice.2016.109. PMID: 27174570
  22. Scheetz MH, Crew PE, Miglis C, Gilbert EM, Sutton SH, O'Donnell JN, Postelnick M, Zembower T, Rhodes NJ. Investigating the extremes of antibiotic use with an epidemiologic framework. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 May 23;60(6):3265-9. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00572-16. PMID: 27001807
  23. Rhodes NJ, Kuti JL, Nicolau DP, Neely MN, Nicasio AM, Scheetz MH. An exploratory analysis of the ability of a cefepime trough concentration greater than 22 mg/L to predict neurotoxicity. J Infect Chemother. 2016 Feb;22(2):78-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2015.10.009. Epub 2015 Dec 17. PMID: 26712584
  24. Rhodes NJ, Kuti JL, Nicolau DP, Van Wart S, Nicasio AM, Liu J, Lee BJ, Neely MN, Scheetz MH. Defining Clinical Exposures of Cefepime for Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infections That Are Associated with Improved Survival. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Dec 14;60(3):1401-10. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01956-15. PMID: 26666929
  25. Rhodes NJ, O'Donnell JN, Lizza BD, McLaughlin MM, Esterly JS, Scheetz MH. Tree-Based Models for Predicting Mortality in Gram-Negative Bacteremia: Avoid Putting the CART before the Horse. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Nov 23;60(2):838-44. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01564-15. PMID: 26596934
  26. D'Agostino C, Rhodes NJ, Skoglund E, Roberts JA, Scheetz MH. Microbiologic clearance following transition from standard infusion piperacillin-tazobactam to extended-infusion for persistent Gram-negative bacteremia and possible endocarditis: A case report and review of the literature. J Infect Chemother. 2015 Oct;21(10):742-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2015.05.010. Epub 2015 Jun 9. PMID: 26143049
  27. Rao SN, Rhodes NJ, Lee BJ, Scheetz MH, Hanson AP, Segreti J, Crank CW, Wang SK. Treatment outcomes with cefazolin versus oxacillin for deep-seated methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Sep;59(9):5232-8. doi: 10.1128/AAC.04677-14. Epub 2015 Jun 15. Erratum in: Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Nov;59(11):7159. PMID: 26077253
  28. Rhodes NJ, Gardiner BJ, Neely MN, Grayson ML, Ellis AG, Lawrentschuk N, Frauman AG, Maxwell KM, Zembower TR, Scheetz MH. Optimal timing of oral fosfomycin administration for pre-prostate biopsy prophylaxis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015 Jul;70(7):2068-73. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkv067. Epub 2015 Mar 22. PubMed PMID: 25802286.
  29. Rhodes NJ, Liu J, McLaughlin MM, Qi C, Scheetz MH. Evaluation of clinical outcomes in patients with Gram-negative bloodstream infections according to cefepime MIC. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2015 Jun;82(2):165-71. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2015.03.005. Epub 2015 Mar 10. PubMed PMID: 25801780.
  30. Rhodes NJ, MacVane SH, Kuti JL, Scheetz MH. Impact of loading doses on the time to adequate predicted beta-lactam concentrations in prolonged and continuous infusion dosing schemes. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Sep 15;59(6):905-7. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu402. Epub 2014 May 27. PubMed PMID: 24867788.
  31. Rhodes NJ, Richardson CL, Heraty R, Liu J, Malczynski M, Qi C, Scheetz MH. Unacceptably high error rates in Vitek 2 testing of cefepime susceptibility in extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Jul;58(7):3757-61. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00041-14. Epub 2014 Apr 21. PubMed PMID: 24752253; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4068587.
  32. Bosch K, McLaughlin MM, Esterly JS, Rhodes NJ, Postelnick MJ, Scheetz MH. Impact of vancomycin treatment duration and dose on kidney injury. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2014 Mar;43(3):297-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2013.11.004. Epub 2013 Dec 7. PubMed PMID: 24388114.

See full publication list at NCBI My Bibliography

External Links

ResearchGate: http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nathaniel_Rhodes
PubFacts: http://www.pubfacts.com/author/Nathaniel+J+Rhodes
LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/pub/n-jim-rhodes/32/927/254